Espresso helps rollups:
Espresso is designed to offer rollups a means of achieving credible neutrality, enhanced interoperability, & long-term alignment with Ethereum.
A shared sequencing marketplace and finality gadget connecting layer-2 scaling solutions
Scale without
Espresso's HotShot finality gadget is optimistically responsive and guarantees fast transaction finality and throughput limited only by network bandwidth.
Perfectly paired
with Ethereum
HotShot scales to tens of thousands of nodes while maintaining strong performance to enable participation of Ethereum’s full validator set.
at its best
Espresso allows proposers to bid for blockspace across multiple rollups, making cross-chain messaging and bridging cheaper, faster, and safer.
Espresso for
L2 Rollups
Accelerate your decentralization roadmap, inherit security from Ethereum, and interoperate more reliably with other rollups—without sacrificing on value accrual or sovereignty.
Participate as L2 Rollup
Espresso for
App Developers
Offer app developers more reliable and neutral infrastructure. No more single points of failure.
Espresso for
End Users
No compromises. High performance, low (and fair) fees, a diversity of applications, and no lock-in.
Today’s rollup teams develop and maintain all components as a singular package - not modular systems that could easily be swapped or upgraded.
Rollups operate in their own silos, introducing all the same issues of interoperability that L1s have experienced.
From sequencing to execution and proving, today's rollups are all run and maintained by their own teams - sacrificing credible neutrality and monopoly-resistance.
Shared sequencing
Many rollups leverage the benefits of the Espresso Sequencer, creating efficiencies for interoperability & beyond.
A permissionless network of nodes running the Espresso Sequencer offers robust data availability and transaction ordering.
HotShot Consensus is optimistically responsive, so rollups don't compromise on high throughput or fast finality.
Easy integration
The Espresso Sequencer is designed to work seamlessly with existing rollup frameworks and other modular systems.
Proposer-Builder Separation
Espresso Sequencer is designed to be compatible with proposer-builder separation, a paradigm that supports mitigation of the harmful effects of MEV.
Agnostic Ordering
Designed to work with any approach to transaction ordering, from First Come First Serve to MEV-optimized.
Cross-Rollup Building
Block builders across multiple rollups only need to coordinate with one proposer, enabling them to guarantee order and outcomes.
Execution and Outcomes
With block builders integrated, users will receive guarantees of transaction inclusion and execution across multiple rollups.
Participate as
L2 Rollup
If you are building a rollup, we want to work with you.
For support in integrating with us, get in touch here.
Participate as Node Operator
If you’d like to help secure Espresso and have experience running node infrastructure, please reach out.
News & Brews
See all news
Going Cross-Game and Cross-Chain with Treasure DAO and Espresso Systems

Decentralized gaming ecosystem Treasure will soon become among the first rollups to benefit from Espresso, a coordination layer enabling enhanced interoperability between chains.

Treasure envisions a seamless gaming ecosystem built on its upcoming L2 chain and its network of L3s known as Infinity Chains. The Treasure ecosystem serves as a gaming platform: a “decentralized Nintendo.” These innovations are specifically tailored to meet the demands of gamers and developers: low costs, strong guarantees, and seamless interoperability. Treasure is developing Arbitrum Orbit chains, benefiting from the maturity, security, and scale of the Nitro stack.

Unlocking Interoperability Across the Treasure Chain

A core goal of Treasure is to enable interoperability between gaming projects and provide a unified experience for users who would otherwise need to interact with many different chains. The Treasure Chain will serve as the settlement layer for its network of L3s known as Infinity Chains. This design allows game developers to maintain custom design choices while still remaining connected to the overall platform.

Treasure is partnering with Espresso Systems to use Espresso as a core part of its infrastructure stack to enable their vision of interoperability across Infinity Chains and with connected ecosystems. Espresso is the coordination layer that spans chains to offer a unified experience for users and developers. Espresso recently released its fifth and final testnet before production launch, later this summer. Espresso facilitates faster bridging and near-instantaneous transaction confirmations.

The integration between Treasure and Espresso promises users the ability to seamlessly navigate between games and chains, carrying their assets — including $MAGIC and in-game progress — across Treasure’s expansive ecosystem.

Espresso believes in the power of open, permissionless systems to empower individuals, whether they are developers or gamers. What makes blockchains unique is the ability for anyone in the world to build upon and interact with any and all of the applications on offer. But as more chains and ecosystems arise, fragmentation occurs. Espresso brings seamless interoperability to the Ethereum ecosystem and beyond, without compromising on decentralization or scale.

Espresso Systems, Treasure and its teams are working to be ready to offer this enhanced functionality to Treasure’s users later this summer. Espresso’s latest testnet features a production-ready integration with Arbitrum’s Nitro stack. Rollup-as-a-Service provider Caldera is partnered with Treasure and supporting the integration. Caldera deployed rollups on Espresso’s previous two testnets.

Looking ahead, Espresso’s upcoming Marketplace Upgrade will further allow Treasure and other integrated chains to minimize frictions in interoperability while also maximizing revenue for their ecosystems. This will enable atomic transactions across chains, which may create opportunities for novel inter-game experiences. developers within the Treasure ecosystem can optimize transaction ordering, ensuring efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Join Us in Shaping the Future of Gaming and Beyond

Whether you’re a developer looking to pioneer the next big game or a gamer eager to explore new realms, follow along the work that Treasure and Espresso are doing together with this integration by following us on X and Farcaster.

And if you are developing a chain and are interested in joining Espresso’s production launch to benefit from fast bridging, optimized transaction ordering, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness, reach out to the team at Espresso Systems here.

Espresso to Power RARI Chain in Production

RARI Chain will soon have interoperability powered by Espresso.

At Espresso, we have been working towards production-grade support for the Arbitrum ecosystem for the last year. Since forming our partnership with Offchain Labs, we’ve invested resources toward the design and implementation of decentralized Timeboost (a decentralized sequencer that mitigates frontrunning and latency racing), technical compatibility with the Arbitrum Nitro stack, and also the improvement of interoperability for the Arbitrum ecosystem.

We are thrilled to announce that RARI Chain will become one of the first Arbitrum Orbit chains in production with Espresso. RARI Chain is an Orbit chain that is built for supporting and rewarding creators with royalties. The chain powers the Rarible NFT marketplace, among others, and has onboarded over 114,000 users since its mainnet launch in January 2024. The chain enables users to easily transact with NFTs with zero fees and near-instant confirmation times, revolutionizing the user experience for NFTs.

RARI Chain and Espresso are working together to ensure users of RARI Chain can easily interoperate with other chains in the Arbitrum Orbit ecosystem and beyond. With RARI Chain’s plans to deploy on Espresso’s upcoming production launch, RARI Chain and its ecosystem will benefit from near-instant confirmation times for cross-chain bridge transactions. Users who want to deposit ETH or USDC on RARI Chain can use bridge providers, supported by Espresso, to transfer their funds over within seconds.

Shortly following this first production launch, chains will additionally have the option to sell their sequencing control through the Espresso marketplace to specialized sequencers. By doing so, they may generate more revenue, help users achieve cross-chain atomic transactions, and more. This means that RARI Chain users would be able to engage in cross-chain NFT swaps. Moreover, due to Espresso’s fast finality layer (HotShot), users will continue to enjoy the fast preconfirmations they’re accustomed to, without needing to trust individual sequencers.

With the support of RaaS provider, Caldera, the two projects are now starting work on integrating RARI Chain in Espresso’s upcoming production launch.

Espresso’s current testnet, Cappuccino, added support for Arbitrum fraud proofs to ensure that the protocol is production ready for Arbitrum Orbit chains like RARI Chain. Caldera has run rollups on Espresso’s previous testnets: Cortado and Gibraltar.

A united, composable ecosystem for Ethereum rollups is coming. RARI Chain will be one of the pioneers of this new frontier, and we’re thrilled to be supporting them.

If you’re an Arbitrum Orbit chain interested in improving interoperability and providing users with secure, and instant, preconfirmations, please reach out to us here.

Releasing Testnet 5: Cappuccino

Espresso has expanded the HotShot finality layer to 100 nodes on Cappuccino testnet. The testnet also adds support for Arbitrum fraud proofs.

Ethereum’s infinite garden powers thousands of decentralized applications. Major L2s now consistently see more transaction activity than the Ethereum L1. The number of customizable application-specific chains is continuously growing as developers opt for the flexibility and sovereignty of their own execution environment. But as rollups offer scale and customizability, they are also working to maintain the composability and credible neutrality of the L1 to stay true to Ethereum’s ethos.

This is why we prioritized further decentralization in Espresso’s fifth testnet, Cappuccino. HotShot, Espresso’s fast finality layer, will now decentralize to a network of 100 geographically distributed nodes — a crucial step as we move towards a fully permissionless system. We’ve also added support for Arbitrum fraud proofs, ensuring that Espresso will be production-ready for Arbitrum Orbit chains as it nears a mainnet release.

This release is available to the public. The code we have developed to add support for Arbitrum fraud proofs is available on GitHub. As a part of this release, we have also published documentation that will enable developers and users alike to interact with Cappuccino.

If you are building a rollup, you can get started on your integration with the latest Espresso testnet here and reach out to collaborate with us here.

HotShot & The Espresso Marketplace

Cappuccino testnet is focused on HotShot — Espresso’s optimistically responsive consensus protocol, designed to support the scale that rollups offer while maintaining strong security and decentralization. HotShot is a fast finality layer that rollups can share for much quicker confirmations than the Ethereum L1 provides. As such, HotShot enables fast bridging and more seamless interoperability between rollups. No longer will users have to deal with long, uncertain wait times when moving assets from one L2 to another.

Espresso’s fast finality layer is a complement to the Espresso Marketplace design. The Espresso Marketplace enables rollups to sell their “sequencing rights” — or the right to order the transactions submitted to their system. Proposers (or “sequencers”) bid via the marketplace for this right and can include and order transactions across an arbitrary number of rollups at once. Rollups, meanwhile, can opt into and out of selling their sequencing rights on the marketplace at any time — including setting a “reserve price” or a minimum threshold that must be bid. The Espresso Marketplace will be implemented in upcoming releases.

Cappuccino running on 100 geographically distributed nodes

We are collaborating with Blockdaemon, Informal Systems, KudasaiJP, LinkPool, P2P, Sub7, ZK Validator, Figment, Nethermind and Unit410 to support us in running 100 geographically distributed nodes for HotShot consensus across 6 continents.

Decentralizing Espresso’s finality layer supports more secure rollup preconfirmations. This has various positive downstream implications — for instance, the time it takes to bridge from a rollup using HotShot as a finality gadget can be reduced to just seconds. This is exemplified by our recent demo in collaboration with Across Protocol.

This work follows our last testnet, Gibraltar, whose nodes were run by one external operator, Blockdaemon, and Espresso Systems.

Adding support for Arbitrum fraud proofs

Our previous testnet, Gibraltar, unveiled Espresso’s integration with the Arbitrum Nitro stack. Our team has continued to build upon this integration by adding support for Arbitrum fraud proofs.

This means that Arbitrum Orbit chains that integrate with Espresso will maintain the full security provided by the Arbitrum stack. It also paves the way to add further support for BOLD, which will make submitting Arbitrum fraud proofs completely permissionless.

Our work in the Arbitrum ecosystem continues to mature and stabilize in preparation for a production launch. These development efforts also support our work with Offchain Labs around decentralized Timeboost, a transaction ordering protocol that is complementary to Espresso.

If you’re building an Arbitrum Orbit chain, and want to leverage the fast preconfirmations that Espresso’s finality layer has to offer, please get in touch with us here.

In partnership with Caldera and AltLayer, we will soon have demo Arbitrum-stack rollups running on Cappuccino for test deployments and transactions. Stay tuned for updates.

Join the Espresso Ecosystem

With four rollup stack integrations now supported by Espresso, we’re looking forward to showcasing how HotShot’s decentralized consensus supports near-instantaneous preconfirmations for rollup users, bridging protocols, and other cross-rollup use cases.

Be sure to follow along on Twitter/X, on Farcaster, and at our website for further updates on Cappuccino and the Espresso roadmap.

If you’re interested in deploying on the Cappuccino testnet, please get in touch with us here.

Espresso is solving rollup interoperability with the AggLayer and Polygon Labs

Together, the AggLayer and Espresso solve the biggest challenge facing the rollup-centric roadmap: interoperability.

We’re bullish Ethereum L2s.

L2s are successfully taking execution off-chain and horizontally scaling Ethereum. It’s clear from ever-increasing metrics that users enjoy the lower fees and improved user experience provided by these protocols. Transaction count and total value locked have also grown exponentially over recent years (see L2BEAT). The speed of innovation around the L2 landscape is unprecedented, with new solutions coming to market every week.

But, Ethereum didn’t have the coordination layer to ensure that these new L2s could seamlessly interoperate with each other. Currently, users must move between fragmented execution environments, fracturing the composability they’re accustomed to on the Ethereum L1. Users also face long times for simple tasks such as bridging, which can take several minutes for deposits and up to several days for withdrawals.

Coordinated sequencing and fast trustless message passing using zk-proofs are foundational building blocks towards improved composability. Ethereum Foundation researcher Justin Drake recently highlighted how these approaches solve rollup fragmentation, thus supporting a more unified scaling roadmap for Ethereum.

Espresso and the AggLayer are perfect complements to enhance rollup interoperability

Our mission at Espresso is to maximize the value layer-2 rollups capture, while ensuring they optimize the ability to satisfy user requests. This should be seamless even when users wish to interact with multiple rollups simultaneously and interdependently. This is why we are coordinating development efforts with Polygon Labs, the developers of Polygon PoS, Polygon zkEVM, Polygon CDK, and the AggLayer. The focus of this work will be on the development of the AggLayer and how it will be supported, and enhanced, by Espresso’s sequencing marketplace and fast-finality layer.

The AggLayer can support faster, more secure bridging and near-synchronous composability between rollups. It does so through enabling rollups to securely pass messages to each other while ensuring that the inputs on one chain are valid outputs from another chain. Multiple rounds of messages can be passed before settlement on Ethereum. Transactions on each of the rollups may be dependent on these messages. Unlike prior “bridging” solutions, these transaction dependencies are guaranteed by the AggLayer without trusted intermediaries. When a rollup creates a message output destined for other rollups it will also create a validity proof of its correctness. If it could do so in real time, the receiving rollup could simply verify the proof while interpreting the message; however, the state of proving is not sufficiently fast yet. The beautiful insight of the AggLayer is that the creation of these proofs can be delayed until all interdependent rollup blocks are created, and then aggregated and verified jointly at the same time the blocks are posted and settled on Ethereum.

However, while the AggLayer provides security for cross-rollup message passing, these interdependent rollup blocks don’t magically manifest on their own — that requires coordination. This is what the AggLayer leaves up to an emergent coordination layer. Enter Espresso.

Espresso provides a sequencing marketplace through which specialized service providers (sequencers) can purchase the right to coordinate the block construction of multiple rollups at the same time. This right may be short-lived or longer-term and can easily change hands. The sale proceeds go directly to the rollups involved and only if they clear a minimum price set by each rollup. Sequencers that can generate surplus value through coordinating block construction for multiple chains are best positioned in the market to successfully clear these prices, above and beyond what rollups can gain sequencing on their own. One way to do so for AggLayer-compatible rollups is to fill this key coordination role that AggLayer-secure message passing requires. Additionally, Espresso provides a fast confirmation service, HotShot, that allows users to know the results of their cross-rollup transactions before Ethereum settlement (aka fast finality).

In short, these technologies significantly improve Ethereum’s user experience and security when leveraged together. Our teams will be working together to maximize the compatibility of Espresso and the AggLayer, ensuring that all Ethereum L2s will be able to leverage both technologies for improved composability.

Towards a better Ethereum

We’ll be updating the community on our plans to further integrate the Polygon technology stack with Espresso.

We will post regular updates on our progress in this thread on the Polygon community forums. We will also be hosting a Twitter Spaces with the Polygon Labs team on [date] to discuss next steps related to these development efforts.

If you are a rollup or application developer interested in leveraging the AggLayer and Espresso, you can get in touch with us here.

See all news
Participate as a L2 Rollup
Participate as a Node Operator